Saturday, November 3, 2012

Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge


If you have spent more than a week anywhere in Florida, then you understand the perfect word to describe the weather here: hot.  Even when raining, breaking a sweat is standard order.  When the humidity dips below a balmy 90%+, I dive into the hidden regions of the closet to pull out long sleeve tees and light jackets.
Two days after Hurricane Sandy whisked by Florida's east coast, the weather became stunningly un-Floridian. To my family's delight, the humidity dropped below 80% and the temperature below 75°F. Having already been to the local pumpkin patch (and I use that endearing term very loosely; for those of you from where winter is an actual season, do NOT confuse where we went with what you have enjoyed as child), we were ready for a family hike.  The child's hiking backpack was retrieved from the garage the previous night and ready for adventure!

Contemplating the Map
I want to take a moment to give credit to the wonderful invention pictured here in use.  My son was in a stroller twice from birth to 4 months in age, and was never keen on the limited view available from a stroller or a rear-facing car seat.  The American-made Kelty used here has served us well across the country to areas including Las Vegas and Monterey Bay.  I'm not sure if it is the close proximity to his favorite person, or just the chance to see everything from a grownup's point of view that keeps our little adventurer happy out on the trail.

Close to home is a rare treasure - the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. Run by the FWS, but also supported by non-profits and FWC, the first thing I suggest you do prior to visiting is to take the time to check out the website: http://www.fws.gov/loxahatchee/.  The second thing I recommend is to have $5 cash in hand. The front gate is not always manned, and payment into the park is still on the honor system.  It is only $5 per car, so don't be chincy and just fork it over.  Your family will definitely get your money's worth!
 
We started our rediscovery of the LOX Refuge at the beautiful Visitor Center, then headed out to the boardwalk - ready to enjoy every moment of the wonderful weather.  The staff on site were extremely friendly and seemed genuinely happy to see us there, very cool first impression!  The boardwalk is well shaded and in excellent condition.  Out little guy was able to run around, but also peek between the rails, see cool things, and point them out all by himself.  The flora and fauna are true to the Seminole word Loxahatchee (technically "low chow") and its meaning "river of turtles". We also heard a symphony of insects and birds on this particular day. There are guided walks along this boardwalk for those in search of the details on species above and below the water line. This day the water was higher than normal due to recent rains, which made for an excellent and comfortable nature walk.
The Everglades also bears the unofficial title "River of Grass", a term coined by Marjory Stoneman Douglas in her 1947 book by that same name.  The book is, well, a bit dry for my taste.  Still, it captures in epic description the senses and sites experience throughout the Everglades as a large, fluid ecosystem.  For those of you unfamiliar with wetlands ecology, I shall save the "101" for another post, but essentially the Everglades is comprised of both swamps and marshes.  Swamps are wetlands with trees, and as you can see are plentiful in the boardwalk portion of the ARM Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The cypress trees towering overhead with dangling old man's beard and air plants is still one of my favorite non-ocean related views.
This freshwater ecosystem is not stagnant; the water is constantly, albeit slowly, moving throughout the state of Florida.  The Loxahatchee watershed alone is well over 200 square miles and just as important to the humans living in this area as it is to migrating wildlife.  The Refuge is also iconic when it comes to nature hikes and bird watching.  Personally, I am not a "bird-er", but if you want to get in that mood before coming and exploring one of many vibrate nature hikes, watch the movie The Big Year (2011; starring Steve Martin, Jack Black, and Owen Wilson).  This feature was unfortunately billed as a comedy instead of a heartfelt movie that addresses serious issues including family dynamics, prioritizing career decisions, and personal discovery.  While I do not know how the hard core bird community felt about the movie peeking into their favorite obsession, I enjoyed it immensely (and watched it several times) and scenes from the film kept swooping into my mind while walking through the Refuge - this place must be slammin' during migration season!
Making his own discovery
There were some bird houses nestled off the boardwalk, but still in good view for those walking and searching for wildlife.  Jace found his own friend and was enamored for over 30 seconds! In toddler time this is quite a feat.  He visibly jumped when the moth flew off, and would not leave the area until we found it again and he knew it was safe.  Only then, after saying goodbye, we were allowed to move on.

A closer look at Jace's new friend
Be sure to bring your camera on this trip, and your best shots can be submitted in the annual photography contest too.  Teachers can enjoy the park with a group of kids, or as students themselves, as part of Project WILD.  Miles of levees can also be enjoyed on a bicycle, just be sure to bring water - after all, it is still Florida weather!  This is not serious trail riding, though, so hard core bikers should stem their expectations.
After completing the boardwalk, we headed out on the Marsh Trail, and immediately found a family struggling on the gravel/dirt/grass trail with a standard stroller.  Nobody appeared happy except the 5 year old running ahead of everyone gleefully.  Poor mom was grunting and fighting with the stroller, and the toddler that was probably supposed to be inside it was sitting on dad's shoulders.  Moral of the story?  If you are bringing a stroller, it had better be off-road ready or maybe your family should stay off the trails this time.  See the above photo of our hiking backpack as another option!
We spotted the wildlife watching post pictured here, and made that our target.  In less than 30 minutes, with Jace running around most of that time, we were atop the tower and ready to enjoy the great breeze and the welcome cool breeze.  This perfect spot to take a break branches off into 3 different trails, and includes a large set of binoculars that does not cost a quarter for 30 seconds of viewing!  It is FREE!

My guys taking a break and discussing where to go next

Some of the birds found along the trail included the great blue heron, great egrets, gallinoles, ibis, cattle egrets, and a few more I am certain on the species.  As mentioned before, I am not a true birder.  We heard, and saw baby gators too.  Sorry, none of those photos turned out well so they are not included here.
One of many scenic shots, this one features a great egret
Not sure when to visit?  The annual free event, Everglades Day is not a bad place to start.  The place will be overflowing with visitors and exhibitors, guest lectures and animal interactions.  This day is the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge at its biggest and brightest, so take advantage of it!  The 14th year of the event is February 9th, 2013, and the theme is "Healthy Everglades, Healthy People".  Details about the event is also on the Refuge website.
 
All photos were taken by me, on the day described in this post.  Feel free to use them, but please provide photo credit, and if you are really feeling generous - a link or post to this blog.

When the weather gives you a pleasant surprise, do not waste it by spending the entire time indoors! Have some fun with your family bright and early... then enjoy football later (like we did) and still have a wonderful, high quality day! 
-Callie Sharkey


Saturday, October 13, 2012

Oceana Coffee - Café Review

Water is the most consumed liquid on the planet. No surprise there. When looking for the runners up I was shocked to be inundated by useless websites, but can state with reasonable certainty #2 is between tea and coffee (depending on the source) with alcohol close behind.

Over the last few years, I have evolved into a full on coffee drinker and anyone who has ever seen me prior to 9 am... well, at basically any time of day... has probably spotted me and a travel mug of coffee within arm's reach. This does not mean in any way that I understood a single thing about coffee aside from how to use my 2-4 cup Mr. Coffee maker. As my mugs grew larger, I have since upgraded to a 12 cup version. I swear I don't drink the whole pot, really I mean it.

While working at a local nature center/aquarium, I taught kid's yoga and also found myself leading the story time programs on a regular basis. As a brilliant plus, coffee is served to adults at the River Center's free "Starfish & Coffee" story time. Being the most avid coffee drinker amongst the staff, I made the dark drink using a boring generic brand we kept stored in the freezer for "freshness".

When Amy Angelo walked into my yoga class as just a mom with 2 great kids, I had no idea of how this encounter would essentially change my way of thinking about a vital part of my daily routine. She is the founder and owner of Oceana Coffee, along with her husband Scott, and one of those ladies working moms can see as a true role model.

Oceana Coffee at the River Center's Birthday Bash

Before the first Oceana Coffee location opened, and patronage was only available online, Amy brought her kids to our story time and immediately grabbed me after the program. "I'm sorry, Callie. We love this place and your program, but I cannot in good conscience let you serve that coffee anymore." Oceana Coffee became a sponsor for the River Center, providing a refined level of excellent coffee for all programs, events, and staff. Basically, I got spoiled - quick.

I started buying coffee for home use, as presents for friends and family, and even took 2 freshly ground lbs with me up to West Virginia because based on previous holiday trips the coffee pickins were gonna be slim. Better to make my own each morning and leave the extras for the owners of the condo to savor as a token of my gratitude.


By the time they opened a cafe in Tequesta at the end of 2011, I had been waiting far too long to get the full "Oceana Experience".  My first coffee was made courtesy of Chris Sands - which I think is a totally cool name for somebody working at a place with ocean in the title - and it changed my coffee religion.

As always, thank you, Chris!
I also met Brooke Kruhm, who began my coffee education within moments. When purchasing my first pound of coffee, she asked what type of coffee maker I had at home. Uh, Mr. Coffee? What does it matter? She smiled and clarified: french press, drip filter...? Oh, I get it now. It does matter how the beans themselves are ground. Question #2 from Brooke: How do you store your coffee? Would you like a resealable bag? Oh, I just store it in the freezer. Brooke's eyes grew large and then softened as she truly came to realize what a coffee rookie looked like, staring ignorantly at her and smiling - goofily numbed by some amazing mocha and open to all suggestions from the coffee gurus. Oh no, sweetie, don't do that ever again. Now promise me you will not put this in the freezer, or else I won't give it to you.  Wait... you say I, I ... can't have my awesome coffee if I put in the freezer?!! "Yes, ma'am. I promise. It won't happen again. I'm sorry."  I have made certain to keep that promise.

Ok, so right now maybe you think I am just a crazy caffeine addict, but for those who enjoy another popular worldwide beverage ponder these points:
  • The best beers come from microbreweries.  If you dont' agree, then you have not sampled nearly enough specialty beers to understand.
  • Teas have a variety of unique blends and can be brewed to different strengths and tastes.  Anyone who cannot tell the difference between black, white, and green teas may as well stick with straight water.
  • Good wine can have complexity and depth.  Sommeliers were biologically proven to have more taste buds and a more sensitive palate than the typical human being.  It takes years to develop a beautiful wine, and I now know that coffee can be just as intricate in flavor and scent.
Heaven exists, and it comes in an eco-friendly cup
Freshness is vital to any agricultural product.  Gourmet restaurants pride themselves in using local produce and the high quality of their ingredients; coffee is no different.  At Oceana Coffee, the beans are carefully selected and shipped in fresh; then they are roasted at the shop itself.  The Angelos even announce "roasting events" where the public is invited to stay after normal business hours to experience the art of this process for themselves.  Talk about getting a real coffee education!
 
Greeted through the front door by the machine that makes the magic
Kid-friendly corner
While having a toddler has contributed greatly to my need for/love of coffee, I wouldn't exactly refer to the typical cafe as being kid-friendly.  This is NOT the case at Oceana!  Remember, I was introduced to Amy as a mom first, and being a parent was carefully taken into consideration when crafting the interior of her shop.  There is a kid's corner - toys, puzzles, books, and even a kid friendly computer with http://pbskids.org/go/ already on screen.


Making friends quickly
It took Jace about 3 seconds to find the toys and settle in happily.  Oceana Coffee will even make a "baby-cino" (steamed milk in a tiny cup) so your little one can have their "coffee" too!  Since Oceana was not created as a fast-food style coffee shop, having a way to keep my little boy happy is a priceless commodity that actually allows me to sit down to drink a cup of coffee - any parent knows this is quite a luxury in itself.  To put things simply: Jace cried when my cup was empty and it was time to go.  We were there for 45 minutes last time and he still wanted to stick around and enjoy the atmosphere.

There are also pastries and some useful gift ideas, but this place is all about the coffee and sharing the opportunity to enjoy it as the coffee gods intended - slow and relaxed.  Meanwhile, I have also been reading the book Onward by Starbucks founder Howard Schultz and realized something incredibly interesting about the company and its path to mass market success.  I am positive that Schultz would walk into Oceana Coffee and not only be blown away by the experience, but reminded that this is how his own little coffee dream began.  Wouldn't it be amazing to be a part of something great in the very beginning? Well, Oceana is already expanding to a second location - so here is your chance.

To learn far more about coffee than I could ever understand, including links to great video tutorials check out their website: http://www.oceanacoffee.com/.  Go there, get the history and feel for some amazing locally roasted coffee.  Once smitten, try ordering some to be shipped in case you aren't exactly local.  I also recommend following them on facebook. The staff attends green markets and various community events regularly, and the social network is a great way to stalk them and know when/where to track down the best coffee in town.  Admit it, don't you hate it when you settle for nationwide chain coffee just to find a quaint little cafe 2 streets down?

Oceana Coffee is not about rushing around or waiting in lines and fighting over the last bagel.  This lovely local cafe harnesses their passion for coffee and will lure its guests into the fold with open arms and warm smiles.  They know the product intimately, and every roasted bean and filled cup expresses this proudly.  I consider myself lucky to have found them over a year ago, and perhaps my latest compliment to Oceana Coffee's premium product and staff - I bought a coffee grinder.

In case the review isn't clear on this one:
~~~~~ (5 out of 5 waves), and I think that is a first even for me.

Never be too busy to enjoy a cup with friends or family... maybe have a sip after a SUP session?
-Callie Sharkey

Saturday, September 29, 2012

Invasive Species 101: Lionfish in Local Waters

Lionfish, Pterois volitans and Ptrois miles found very far from their native home
There are waves and trends that flow through every field from fashion to education.  Those particular two divisions melded together for me about 10 years ago when I bought a t-shirt that simply read "Green is the New Black".  Think about health food trends: oat bran, wheat bran, no carbs, vegetarian friendly - as our worldwide culture constantly evolves, there is also regular shifting among conservation efforts too.
The new eco-based 3 R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Once upon a time, recycling was depicted as a homeless person in the big metropolis pushing a shopping cart around and digging through trash in search of valuable glass bottles or aluminum cans.  Now theme parks with large mouse ears on everything boast recycling bins throughout the park, conveniently located right next to standard trash bins.  Small children in school are learning a very different 3 R's than our grandparents did: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.  From experience I know that kids are getting that phrase hammered into their brains at a very early age; but do they really understand what it means and how to implement these changes in their everyday lives?  Eh, maybe / maybe not.

A few years ago, the theme of plastic tailgated the recycling party. While this is still an extremely important issue across the globe, as Heidi states in every episode of Project Runway, "One day you're in, and the next day you're out."  I watched the next trend and was very much involved in sharing the message of "Water".  Water is a limited resource and far more valuable than any fossil fuel, but just wasn't getting the attention deserved.  Too many people living in "civilized" areas were, and still are, taking water for granted.  Living in a state which suffers serious droughts and water restrictions most years has taught me how little human beings understand water as a limited commodity.  Florida might be surrounded by water, but it is undrinkable and would kill most plants. That particular concept I took on as personal challenge to teach to as many children as possible.  Kids simply don't often ask questions like: Where does water come from? Where does it go when I am done with it? What would happen if the water ran out?

These questions are just as important as recycling and global warming, plus all of those issues are integrated on a very tightly knit little blue planet.  In fashion, by the time a style or article of clothing makes it to the shopping mall, it is time for the industry to move on; otherwise, it wouldn't be cutting edge, right?  So, now that the plight of water has made it onto to episodes of Super Why (popular toddler's educational cartoon about reading/spelling on PBS and Sprout networks) and even become the main topic for the Girl Scouts of America's Brownie level Journey: Wonders of Water (W.O.W.), I look ahead and feel comfortable predicting the next new eco-friendly trend. By the way, I did also predict the water trend - so it helps my confidence in calling out the next play.

So what is the latest environmental impact that YOU should know about to remain cutting edge on the eco-front?

INVASIVE SPECIES
 
Now, I would never throw a pitch without teaching you how to swing, so get you ready for the next wave of conservation efforts that are already in place despite not always making the media headlines.  Here is the 101 needed for understanding invasives.

First, a few foundation terms that it never hurts to properly define:
"Species" means a group of organisms all of which have a high degree of physical and genetic similarity, generally interbreed only among themselves, and show persistent differences from members of allied groups of organisms."
"Native species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem."
"Invasive species" means an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health."

Let's start by looking at these terms.  Basically, a "native" means this organism has always been found in a region naturally.  There is a term often used interchangeably and inaccurately with "invasive" and that is "exotic".  An exotic species is not necessarily an invasive species.  One escaped pet lemur roaming around the neighborhood is simply an exotic animal on the loose.  It will not establish a breeding population all by itself, and will not cause any large scale or long term negative impacts to the ecosystem where it is wandering around.

An invasive species is much different.  It has adapted to the environment and is breeding.  By adding an entirely new population to an ecosystem, now there is the threat of serious, detrimental impact.

Look back in the archives to "Jellyfish 101" to see my first mention of an invasive species in local waters - the Tripedalia cystophora box jelly (July 2012).  Invasive plants and animals are an issue every time explorers set foot on new lands, so this is not a new problem.  The United States Department of Agriculture even has an Invasive Species Council that was established back in 1999 to take on the arguably impossible task of tracking and stopping invasives from establishing themselves.

Most of the invasive species to an area don't get attention because they are organisms like non-toxic plants or critters low on the food chain. An invasive plant that does not sting like Africanized bees or eat your small dog as a large boa constrictor might simply do not garner extensive media coverage. Take a very short walk anywhere in Florida and several lizard species will be darting out of the way - none of them are native save for the small green anole and the bluish black skink. But since they do not grow to the impressive 4' and up of an iguana, most people do not see them as a problem even though many tinier animals are now at risk of endangerment and extinction due to the uninvited reptiles' presence.

So how exactly does a species go from being simply an exotic to an invasive?
  • Often these invaders become very successful predators. This concept does not exclude plants.  Many vines and shrubs will move into an area and choke out the previous residents. (i.e. Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolius). The Australian Pine (Casuarina sp.) sheds needles with a high acidic content, and over time the soil below the tree itself becomes too acidic for much of the local fauna to grow.
  • Generally, the local wildlife does not see this new inhabitant as either threat or food.  So potential predators overlook the new food source, and instead the population booms.
  • Invasives breed successfully, and often.
  • Natural processes do not apply to an invasive species
To better explain, I will use a marine invader that is adapting so quickly and efficiently, researchers and conservationist are pulling out all the stops to get the public on board and involved in this local eco-war: Lionfish.
 
A very successful predator on local reefs is the schoolmaster snapper (pictured above).  The bait in this particular predator/prey relationship are small grunts.  This photos shows clearly how the prey recognizes its predator and swims around the snapper, staying out just out of striking distance.


Grunts in the same area on a similar reef behave in a completely different manner with the lionfish.  While many of the fish in the photo above could be eaten, they pay no attention to the predator in their midst.  This allows for the lionfish to essentially gorge themselves on a regular basis.  Study of stomach contents has shown lionfish will eat around 80% of the animals found on reefs, including crabs, shrimp, and fish species.  They can also consume an animal almost 1/2 their own size in one big gulp.

Where are lionfish native?  The Indo-Pacific region:

How did they get halfway across the planet? These bottom dwelling fish are not the type to migrate into open water, and certainly not across long distances.  So, like every other invasive, they are introduced to an area.  Lionfish are an extremely popular decorative aquarium fish.  I have personally spoken to dozens of people who kept them and soon realized that the other tank residents were disappearing, until only the lionfish and anything too big for it to eat remained.

An invasive species may arrive in the form of pets that are released often enough to find mates and breed, but sometimes an exotic species is intentionally released into an area.  It is now considered a last resort effort to control a destructive invader by introducing its natural predator.  The cliche goes "two wrongs don't make a right", but nobody was thinking that clearly when the mongoose was introduced to Hawaii.  Rats became rampant when the islands were originally discovered, as there are no native snakes or other rat predators in Hawaii.  To tackle this problem, the mongoose was introduced... but rats come out primarily at night, and the mongoose is a diurnal day hunter... anyone else see the problem?  So now essentially Hawaii has both a rat issue and a mongoose dilemma. Nice.

Back to the lionfish.  These fish are commonly thought to be poisonous, but the proper term is venomous.  Use this adage:
"Poison is ingested, Venom is injected"
The lionfish meat is not toxic, and very yummy (personal experience talking).  The venom of a lionfish is only found in the spines along the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly/anal) of the fish, meaning those beautiful flowery pectoral fins and tail plumage are harmless (also personal experience).  These barbs work on a pressure puncture system, meaning that touching the sides of these needles will not sting.  That does NOT mean I suggest trying this out on a live lionfish just for kicks - actually that is a really bad idea.  While there have been no reported deaths due to lionfish stings, the venom is still very painful and any lionfish victims should go to the hospital for treatment.  There is always a chance of allergic reaction, so take precautions if tagged.

Available online & with local vendors
Researchers with Florida International University, the Loxahatchee River District, REEF, and Martin County are just a few of the amazing organizations working in different regions of Florida alone - but they are all tied together and focused on the same goal: lionfish removal from the natural ecosystem.  These Lionfish Derbies are working hard to get the word out the lionfish are edible to humans!  Because let's face it, humans have proven themselves to be excellent predators particularly in the oceans.

This book also includes how to safely clean a lionfish, but there are also tutorial videos out there for free.  Instead of providing a long list of great organizations involved in the valiant effort of lionfish removal, instead I shall focus on some of the lionfish biology that is less known and very important to understanding why they have become such a successful example of an invasive species.

A strong invasive species population breeds early and often.  While lionfish are becoming rare in their own native habitats, the explosion of inhabitants locally has also provided a plethora of biological specimens for scientist to study.  We have learned that lionfish breed when reaching a length of only 4" for males and 7" for females; considering these relatives of the native scorpionfish can grow to a record length of 18" and have been found all too often in the 15-17" range, that is an opportunity for exponential population growth.

When the zebra mussel was introduced into the Great Lakes back in the 1980's, the population expanded all the way south to the Gulf of Mexico.  This freshwater mussel cannot survive in saltwater, and this natural process is the only factor that truly stopped this invasive filter feeder's progress.  A great dynamic map of this migration can be tracked here: http://www.nationalatlas.gov/dynamic/dyn_zm.html

Natural barriers are often the deciding factor in the growth and success of an invasive species.  The jungle and heat loving iguanas found here will never reach into the states north of the Floridian border.  Cold snaps and even rarely freezing temperature put these endothermic animals into shock and they will quite literally fall out of trees from the cold.

So, lionfish live on saltwater reefs, and surely cannot breach the salinity gap - right?  Many estuaries, like the Loxahatchee River and Indian River Lagoon have brackish water that ebbs and flows with tidal influences.  This mixture of fresh and saltwater serves as a nursery for countless species in the area, and the further one paddles upstream the lower the salinity.  While the salt content in the water decreases, there are also changes to the species found.  Very few animals can withstand a full change from fresh to saltwater - snook is one popular local example.

A friend and associate with FIU, Zack Jud, has been working with the Loxahatchee River District (LRD) to track and study the lionfish population in the Loxahatchee River.  One scary development from an environmental standpoint is the discovery that every time the research crew goes further up river as part of the lionfish study and a long term Oyster Restoration Project (more about that study in a future post), lionfish are spotted.  The most recent sighting/sampling had researchers on the Loxahatchee shortly after a freshwater spike in the estuary due to rain and Tropical Storm Issac.  Lionfish have now been tracked 4 miles upriver into waters with a salinity of 8 ppt (parts per thousand).

Let me clarify this simple fact:  On average, ocean salinty ranges from about 32 - 37 ppt.  There can be extreme ranges like the Red Sea (42 ppt) and locations where freshwater and saltwater collide to lower the salinity, creating brackish ecosystems that eventually turn freshwater (0 ppt salinity).  As mentioned before, very few animals have the ability to adapt to this severe shift in salinity, so to find healthy lionfish so far upstream is disturbing.
Photo taken in the brackish waters of the Loxahatchee River, on one of the Oyster Restoration Project research sites.
Courtesy of Zack, here is the abstract from the original publication on the invasion of lionfish in the Loxahatchee River ecosystem:
 
Their initial discoveries immediately prompted more research, particularly to find out how fast these animals are migrating as a population, if at all.  This is the most recent published work in the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology following up on the lionfish data regularly collected in the same area. Soon to be "Dr." Zack Jud and Dr. Craig Layman authored this particular paper as well.

Essentially, individual lionfish don't stray too far from home, showing a fairly strong inclination for "site fidelity".  Hey, if there is food here, why move?  Makes enough sense.  But, going back to the topic of successful breeding, larval lionfish will float in ocean (or in this case river) currents for around 30 days before settling in an area.  That fact will quickly compensate for any lack of migration from established individuals and keep the population growing and moving simultaneously - yikes!
Lionfish have since been documented 4 miles upriver.
So are invasive species a problem? Uh, yeah.  How are changes made to stop these earth-bound aliens from taking over?  Well, that is where everyone becomes an important part of the eco-puzzle.  Three major changes will have a huge positive impact:
  • Stronger regulations and enforcement on customs and international shipments will greatly reduce the introduction of new species.  One more reason to buy local!
  • Pet Trade
    • Do your research before getting any pet.  Instead of releasing that invasive animal because you feel bad about not being able to handle it anymore but don't want to kill it, research Pet Amnesty events in your area. Most zoos across the county have at least one pet amnesty day each year. The purpose is to find homes with prepared owners ready and willing to take responsibility for these exotic animals, so Fluffy the pet iguana will still have a good home.
  • Remove invasive species
    • Population culling/sterilization.  This means open fishing season on the lionfish in particular.
I want to address one last issue regarding the lionfish invasion here in south Florida - word of ciguatera fish poisoning in lionfish has come up.  First, a little note about ciguatera from the Center for Disease Control (CDC)
"Ciguatera fish poisoning (or ciguatera) is an illness caused by eating fish that contain toxins produced by a marine microalgae called Gambierdiscus toxicus. People who have ciguatera may experience nausea, vomiting, and neurologic symptoms such as tingling fingers or toes. They also may find that cold things feel hot and hot things feel cold. Ciguatera has no cure. Symptoms usually go away in days or weeks but can last for years. People who have ciguatera can be treated for their symptoms."
According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this toxin is usually transmitted to human by consuming the following fish:
Marine finfish most commonly implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning include the groupers, barracudas, snappers, jacks, mackerel, and triggerfish. Many other species of warm-water fishes harbor ciguatera toxins. The occurrence of toxic fish is sporadic, and not all fish of a given species or from a given locality will be toxic.
These top predators essentially are so high up on their food chain, the toxin builds up in their tissues as they consume other animals that have been feeding on the algae blooms.   Several articles have inched their way out into the general population, and Zack has actually been awesome enough to research this and provide his professional opinions (see link below).  As of right now, the only lionfish found to have the ciguatera toxin in its tissues were in the Caribbean, not U.S. waters - and lionfish show high site fidelity, remember?  (Look at how much you have learned today!)  The FDA revealed the findings and made them public, as they should.  Unless you plan to not eat snapper or grouper anymore as well, there is no scientific reason to shy away from eating local lionfish.

 Special thanks to Zack for sharing his work and staying in touch!

Keep up with Zack's research directly on The Abaco Scientist Blog: http://absci.fiu.edu/?p=3330
This site is updated regularly with the latest news by the ultimate experts on our local lionfish epidemic.  Photos and video clips are also included with many of the posts as well.  I can certainly recommend contacting these guys with any questions, comments, or sightings because unlike many brilliant scientists I have met, they are not only very knowledgeable but also friendly and approachable too.

To check out the lionfish cookbook or order online, visit: www.reef.org

For information on the how the government defines and addresses invasive species, follow this link: http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/laws/execorder.shtml
Definitions of many terms were taken directly from this government website to ensure accuracy.

To find out more about Super Why episodes: http://pbskids.org/superwhy/#/superstuff/features
To learn about or get involved with the Girl Scouts of America's WOW program: http://www.girlscouts.org/program/journeys/your_planet/brownie.asp

All photos were either taken by yours truly, or provided by Zack Jud and Dr. Craig Layman and their research team. Thanks again!
 
If you are interested in joining a lionfish derby, just post a comment on where you would like to participate and I will be happy to respond with the closest organization and event to your area.

I am extremely lucky to have worked with so many wonderful individuals on the cutting edge of research and conservation efforts.  It even inspired me to return to school myself for a Master's degree and to conduct some research of my own again too. Thanks, everybody!

-Callie Sharkey

Saturday, September 15, 2012

SUP-tastic Day!


Behold: 5 rookies in this photo (and that isn't the entire crew!)
So... How much SUP if you could go SUP would you SUP if you could just SUP?
 
As Chris demonstrates, everyone started to paddle out on their knees but were soon standing like veterans
ANSWER: Well, lots.  This time we took out a pack of rookies to tackle Stand Up Paddle boarding for the first time.  From 3 to 43 years old, from Oklahoma to Ohio, our group was ready to rock on fantastically flat water.  One piece of advice: in the height of summer, when you know that 7 boards are needed, be sure to make a reservation! The crew at Jupiter Point Paddling was wonderfully accommodating even with 30 campers on site and life jackets everywhere, but were also very glad that I had taken the time to let them know in advance.

The weather was beyond amazing during an especially hot summer.  Slathered in sunscreen and wearing polarized sunglasses, we set out as a group with 7 SUPs - two of them bearing kids on the nose.  Jacen (3) is old hat with this now, but his 8 yr old cousin was excited to be out on the water for the first time.  The weather and tide were so forgiving, she even braved standing up all by herself.  Jace was so inspired, that he decided to stand up by himself too (pictured in background)!

Way to go, little Mak!
A short paddle out to the sand bar, and the entire crew stopped to check out some of the local wildlife.  Chris has a shell-covered sea urchin (pictured), but we also found live conch, huge sea cucumbers, and tons of fish.

The clip below definitely shows off the beautifully flat water and extremely low tide that morning. Most of our group was chilling out on the infamous sand bar, while my toddler is chasing down his dad. Jacen's biggest hero is rarely allowed out of sight anytime we go on an adventure, because Daddy is always up to something fun.
video

Stand Up Paddle boarding is quickly becoming a hot new past time around the world.  A recent article in Outside magazine (Sept 2012, pg. 34) breaks down the rising conflicts between SUP users and surfers (more on that in the future).  It made me realize that while I am part of this new beginner trend, we choose to play on inland waters for our SUP adventures right now - especially with a toddler in tow.  While I cannot wait to try open water paddle boarding for myself, I still believe that when going out for the first time keeping to the mangroves and natural areas is the best idea.

Chris and Stephen, already standing up like pros.
Taking a dip
Talk about shallow water!
One of the highlights this particular outing included a first for our little section of family too - our first MANATEE!  Normally manatees travel in packs, but this easy going gal appeared to be all alone.  I spotted a large, dark shadow moving towards my two oldest nephews and shouted for them to keep an eye out.  She meandered straight into our group of 7 SUPs and everyone stopped paddling immediately. We all wanted a chance to see the endangered animal without harassing her, and she made it easy by literally wandering up to basically everyone in turn.  This 5 minute interaction was my husband's first wild manatee sighting, and my first non-injured wild manatee.  Jacen was just in awe.  My camera actually died about 2 minutes before the manatee appeared, so I have to thank my brother-in-law Todd for taking this shot - and sharing it!

Keith & Jacen are on a 12' SUP, so this shows great perspective on just how big sea cows are!
 As our family fun came to an end, we even saw a spotted eagle ray cruising along the grass beds.  The water clarity was some of the best we have had all year.  Now that school is back in session and water is far less busy during the week, I am already planning a kid-free SUP excursion for the first time.

If you want this experience for yourself, as always I highly recommend Jupiter Point Paddling. The location and staff are awesome, especially with rookies.  You can make reservations by phone, via the website, and even through their Facebook page. This link will take you wherever you want to go:
http://www.paddleinparadise.com/

This was a great way of sharing our new passion with family, and giving them a fresh experience during their standard Florida vacation week.  Even though they travel down each year, trying something new pumps up the fun for everyone!

Don't forget that family visits are about more than just hanging out during dinner.  The next time you are going away to visit family/friends, or they are coming to see you, take the time to plan out some new special adventure for everyone to experience. That is how the best stories, coolest pictures, and most remarkable memories are made.

-Callie Sharkey

Sunday, September 2, 2012

Dolphin Tale - Movie Review

The dolphin that this particular tale is all about is Winter, and she was originally rescued in December of 2006.  The theatrical version of this story was released as Dolphin Tale in September 2011, and I was in absolutely no mood to see it - ever.  Why? Because I had been "Free Willy"-ed about, what, 6 times now?  The first of that series was inspirational and captured my attention fully; I even purchased the sound track with my allowance money.  But just like anything that really attracts my attention, it also prompted me to start digging.  The more I learned about the history of killer whales and other marine mammals in captivity, the frustrations with regulations in the U.S. over the years, and the tragic circumstances still happening in other parts of the world (see The Cove post in this blog's archives: 6/20/10), the more I became personally jaded with the storyline.

So, I steered clear of this movie for fear of wasting precious hours only to be disappointed until a colleague - perhaps the most cynical friend I have, to be quite honest - walked in one morning stating she had watched a surprisingly good movie.  Yup, Dolphin Tale.  Once the initial shock wore off, I set out to watch this film and decide for myself.  Between the boundless energy of my 3 year old, the rotating schedule of my firefighter husband, and oh yeah, FOOTBALL!, it took me 3 days to watch this movie in its entirety.  Considering I had previously decided this film was going to be a total waste, it speaks very highly of this story and its characters as to my determination to finish it.  I was genuinely engrossed and couldn't wait for my son to take a nap so I could continue watching with my full attention.  I already knew the basic story of Winter, so that also meant I knew how it ended before even watching the movie trailers.  It takes an exceptional cast and perfect storyline execution to keep a skeptic entranced when there is no surprise element to be had!

RATING:
~~~~1/2 waves (out of 5)

This, like Soul Surfer is a feel good movie rooted in reality, giving the film even more depth and credibility.  Since the main character (besides Winter the dolphin) is an 11 year old boy, it is perfect for kids too.  As a parent, I enjoyed the extra love given by Ashely Judd to her role as Sawyer's mother, Lorraine. At one point in the movie she is arguing with her son's summer school teacher:
"I am witnessing something a mother, and a teacher, dreams of seeing - a turned-on kid"
Remember when something excited you to the point that it became an obsession, even for a little while?  I was insane and all about "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" for years as a kid.  I can admit that now, because retro is in, and they have made a comeback along with my Strawberry Shortcake doll.  But seriously, let me know if you see Popples anywhere so I can open those old boxes in the attic without shame!

If you are in to watch this movie, but don't know the story and don't want to know... then stop right here and come back after finishing the flick for yourself.  If you want to get the complete scoop, here comes the SPOILER ALERT!!

Dolphin Tale sports an all star cast: Morgan Freeman, Ashely Judd, Harry Connick, Jr. (even his actual daughter makes a special appearance), Kris Kristoferrson, and two great child actors in Nathan Gamble (Marley and Me, The Mist, Dark Knight) and brand new Cozi Zuehlsdorff (you will definitely see more of this girl in the future).  The dolphin in the movie is actually Winter too, prosthetic tail and all.

This film is available in 3D, and if you are part of the general population probably do not have a 3D television at home.  Don't worry, it is not so full of special multi-dimensional effects that it becomes distracting to watch at home or on the computer.  According to the Internet Movie Data Base (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1564349 ) this movie garners only a 6.7 out of 10 rating.  Similar to Soul Surfer, I think this in mainly due to misguided expectations going in; know you are sitting down to watch a feel good movie and just enjoy it!  Ebert gets annoyed at the anthropomorphizing of Winter and Sawyer's friendship.  Let me rebuttal with a photo taken of my son at age 2 while visiting Sea World in Orlando.
Kissing a dolphin through the glass at Sea World
Complete strangers started taking pictures and the docent stationed there to talk about dolphins was speechless.  So there.  Their interactions went on for about 3 minutes until the dolphin feeding/talk began and all of them disappeared back to the surface.  He was not the only kid down there, and the baby dolphin and Jace were the only two different species interacting at all.

Back to the film...
Feel free to be inspired by the truth behind the film, and then realize that you can go online and see Winter for yourself, or visit her at the Clearwater Marine Aquarium on the west coast of Florida.  
http://www.seewinter.com/
The rescue and rehabilitation steps taken in the film are very real from the crab trap to the special sock, and the work with Winter's prosthetic tail has led to progression in human applications as well.

Of course not every scene and character in the movie is real. Hey, it is still a movie and therefore has an underlying duty to be entertaining.  One downer, "Rufus" isn't real... but I have been to enough zoos and aquariums to know that animals like him are definitely based on reality.  Unfortunately, the children depicted in this movie are not real, either; but before that completely destroys your opinion of the movie understand that kids are involved in animal rescues all the time. They drag their respective grownups back into facilities to visit the injured animals they helped to save and often gain an experience that influences their behavior toward animals and the environment for the rest of their lives.  Nothing impacts a person's outlook like personal interaction and experience.

Winter was originally rescued by the amazing team at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute. This same organization is still at work, and literally saved 5 stranded pilot whales just this past weekend too:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/01/beached-pilot-whales-florida-fort-pierce_n_1849507.html?utm_hp_ref=fb&src=sp&comm_ref=false
To folow the general progress of that story, check out: http://www.fau.edu/hboi/

To learn more about strandings and working as a volunteer with injured marine wildlife, go back to my archives (May 2011) for details and perspective from my personal experience.

If you are looking for a positive distraction amongst the mud slinging in the political press and just want to shut off that part of your brain for a little less than 2 hours, I highly recommend this film.

I'm gonna go watch more of Winter online now. Hm, a field trip across Florida might be in order!
-Callie Sharkey

Monday, August 27, 2012

Water - from a Coconut


Apparently there is another new health craze that I simply stumbled onto based solely on curiosity and cravings a couple of weeks ago - coconut water.
So, water can come from a coconut - yeah, so what? Everyone knows this, right? But to be honest with you I had never tried it until an impromptu and very hot trip to Whole Foods led me to the cool drink section. A huge area was consumed by various sizes, flavors, and brands of coconut water and I figured "Why not? Let's try something new."

I snagged the Vita Coco(c) coconut water with pineapple - hey, sounded like a pina colada to me! Then I grabbed the ZICO(c) pure coconut water from the "buy 1 get 1 free" pile barricading the aisle to try later.  My 3 year old toddler got a kid-focused coconut water with Clifford proudly displayed on the "juice" box by Hansen's Natural Junior Juice in "Very Berry".  Who wants to try something new alone, right?

The main claims about the benefits of coconut water are a boost in electrolytes, potassium (the good stuff in bananas), and it is comparatively lower in sugar than most sport drinks, sodas and even some fruit juices.  Go a step farther to hear claims about how this elixir from nature will alleviate kidney stones, hydrate you better than spring water, and even treat conditions ranging from hangovers to cancer.

The drive home was definitely made cooler and more flavorful by my drink of choice.  Not only did I enjoy it, I wasn't thirsty after drinking it - many extra fruity or super healthy foods tend to leave one feeling a bit dried out.

I was looking forward to chilling the extras purchased and adding them to my favorite new vice: at home smoothies.  My blender died a few years ago, and having a sleeping toddler will keep anyone away from loud appliances; but my husband discovered the blender free smoothie option at our local grocer and I have been hooked!  This summer has been crazy hot across the nation, and a wonderful discovery was the addition of straight up coconut water with smoothie mix instead of juice was a pleasant experiment.

But the greatest part of this new product was part II, also brought about by my husband. He came home from work with a fresh coconut, right off the tree.  We went outside as a family, and he cracked it open with a machete.  The coconuts usually seen here in Florida are green and have been recorded causing damage when they fall.  This includes hitting cars and people, and many home owners associations require their neighborhood inhabitants keep all palm trees well groomed for safety as much as aesthetics or bugs.
Coconuts are technically the fruit of the palm tree.
We held a cup under the coconut once it was split, and collected nearly 20 oz. of clear coconut water.  It has a surprisingly sweet with a bit of nutty aftertaste.  Next, my husband carved large sections of coconut meat out of the husk and we chewed yummy chunks of raw coconut.  Very cool new experience, but it got me thinking... what did I really know about the coconut? Not much - so I decided to do a little bit of research.

A coconut first develops as a small fruit, and can fatten into the large green coconuts pictured above.  These green coconuts contain the most water.  Over time the small white tissue on the inside of the coconut, also referred to as the "meat" of the coconut, absorbs the water and fattens this tissue.  A mature coconut has a hard brown shell, has absorbed most of the water into the meat, and generally falls off the tree on its own. When the water is gone, a "flower" may form inside the fruit, but leave it too long and mature coconuts will still rot like any other produce.  Therefore, I do not suggest cracking open that blackened, slimy coconut that washed up on the beach. Ew.
The Life Cycle of a Coconut
 As for health effects on humans, I went to my trusty WebMD and gleaned this nutritional info:
It has fewer calories, less sodium, and more potassium than a sports drink. Ounce per ounce, most unflavored coconut water contains 5.45 calories, 1.3 grams sugar, 61 milligrams (mg) of potassium, and 5.45 mg of sodium compared to Gatorade, which has 6.25 calories, 1.75 grams of sugar, 3.75 mg of potassium, and 13.75 mg of sodium.
The fact is, natural stuff is often the best for your health.  Eating local produce and honey has been proven to boost immune health and have a lower carbon footprint.  Exploring the local options for fruits, and shopping for items while in season is always smart, and generally cheaper. Here in Florida, coconuts are plentiful.


For flavors and more about the products I tried visit the company sites:
http://vitacoco.com/
http://zico.com/
http://www.hansens.com/us/en/products/juice/junior-juice/very-berry/
For the cool life cycle photo, check out: http://www.onlinegardenertips.com/fruit-gardening/coconut/The-Life-Cycle-Of-A-Coconut.html



As a kid, we were all forced to taste new things. There is no reason, as an adult, to stop trying new flavors and textures - especially since you don't have to finish anything you don't like!

-Callie


Monday, August 20, 2012

Local Research: Green Sea Turtles 101

photo by Kirsten Jones - beautiful shot taken in Boca Raton, FL
Many moons ago, a professor referred to the anemone as "charismatic macro fauna".  He was, and still is, a marine plant and algae guy.  Some animals are definitely more attractive to the general population of humans just as some species have a bad rap and strike fear in others.  I have close friends who freeze at the sight of a spider or snake, even if it is just a still photo or on television.  I have family members who do not venture into the ocean for fear of sharks (making my married last name even more ironic!) or jellyfish. There are also good friends in my circle who literally breed reptiles of all sizes, so I like to think of myself as being well rounded in my love/hate relationships with animal species.
    ...Except for scorpions. 
...Not cool with scorpions.

Sea turtles are certainly one of those creatures who have the "charisma" stated by my former instructor.  Today enjoy some background into the world of one particular sea turtle species.  This post does not give all the general information on sea turtles, their life cycles, and information of that sort.  I have decided today to be specific and give those who may already have a love for the marine turtle some knowledge that goes a little deeper.  Plus, at the end enjoy a BONUS!  I received such wonderful feedback about Jellyfish 101 and Evan Orellana's paper, that this time my friend and colleague Cody Mott has agreed to share some of his turtle research with us. Enjoy!

Green Sea Turtles 101:

Happy Birthday, little green turtle!
General consensus in the scientific community is there are seven different species of sea turtles: The Loggerhead, Leatherback, Hawksbill, Kemp's Ridley, Olive Ridley, Australian Flatback, and the Green. There is one noted sub-species to the Green known as the "Black" sea turtle if you really want to get technical.
Most of those species are found in Florida waters at some point in their life cycle, and today the focus is one particular species - the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas).  Greens nest here in Florida, and are also found in local waters as juveniles, feeding on plants and grasses.  There is even a species known as "turtle grass" (Thalassia testudinum).  This last fact is especially cool when you look at the classification of the sea turtle:
Kingdom - Animalia (animals)
Phylum - Chordata (vertebrates)
Order - Testudines
So, the plant is quite literally named after turtles - even in Latin!
Why are they called "green" turtles? Especially as adults, green sea turtles are vegetarians, and just like a flamingo turns pink from eating shrimp, the body fat of these turtles is tinged green from all the plant consumption.  Cool.   Ew.   No... Cool.

Where do they nest?  Green sea turtles are found all over the world, partly in fact due to their migration routes that expand for tens of thousands of miles.  The "long road home" takes on a whole new meaning as this species, along with all other marine turtles, swim back after nearly 30 years to the original beach of their birth.  Florida happens to be a nesting hot spot and considering this species has had some serious downs (endangered status) along with great research and conservation efforts, nesting is back on the rise.  While an individual turtles may nest as many as 5 times in one season, that takes such a toll on the animal that she doesn't return to the beach the following year.  That means a bi-annual pattern of high and low nesting seasons for greens has developed.  Plus, with that really long swim mentioned earlier, just trying to get back every single year to nest would be extremely difficult.

Green turtle track with a distinct tail drag down the middle
These ladies seem make HUGE nests with deep body pits, and often work their way well into the dune vegetation.  A variety of theories are out there as to why this occurs, including that turtle-momma might be nesting as far from the high tide line as possible to avoid her nest washing away during its 60+ day incubation.  Here in Florida, though, when up in the dune vegetation beware of FIRE ANTS. These invasive insects have been regularly documented killing hatchlings (baby turtles) by swarming nests.

Big turtle = BIG PIT
During my years of nesting surveys, I found green turtles occasionally spend so much time nesting (digging, laying eggs, and covering the evidence) that they were still on the beach after dawn.  This also led to me learning exactly how far those flippers actually spray sand while covering their nest.  I stood behind the lovely female below only to be knocked over by the sand blast!
The 3 stakes in front of this turtle mark a loggerhead nest laid that same night. The tracks from that nest are still visible.
Similar to loggerheads and hawksbills, green turtle eggs are roughly the size of a ping pong ball. Green nests are usually larger though, which makes sense as this is a much larger species of turtle. The average green turtle nest has 120 - 150 eggs, with my personal highest count being 174 eggs in one nest.

How big do greens get?  This particular species of turtle can easily grow anywhere from 250 - 400 lbs (110 - 190kg) on average. The largest green turtle documented was 5' long and 870 lbs.


How to identify a green from another species:  Green sea turtles are distinct in a few ways. When looking head-on, there is only one pair (i.e. 2 total) scales between the eyes. Most turtle species have two pair in that location.
The 2 Pre-frontal scales between the eyes are unique to green sea turtles
When looking at the carapace, or top shell, greens have four scutes on each side, and five down the middle.  Their shells may vary in color from green to yellow.  Their shells are usually clean, especially compared to loggerhead turtles; they are even documented on reefs at "cleaning stations" where fish or other symbiotic critters come out to help keep the turtle looking shiny.  Picture the "car wash" in the movie A Shark's Tale and you will get the basic, albeit far more musical, concept.

Juvenile Green Turtle - Carapace View
Green sea turtles are on the rise, but were once a critically endangered species here and in other parts of the world.  Why?  Think about it... this animal is named after the color of its meat.  That would be like referring to cows as "red" cattle.  Humans ate them, and in some areas and cultures still do.  The Cayman Turtle Farm in the Cayman Islands participates both in research and restaurants.  Sea turtles are a part of the lifestyle there; while I have never (and doubt I ever could) eaten turtle of any kind, I do have to slow down and understand that my culture is not the same for everyone.  I do eat meat.  Some humans have chosen a life as a vegetarian or even gone a step further as purist vegan.  No judgement, except on to-fur-key.  If you have never heard of it, good for you. Sorry, vegans. But I digress...
Turtle canneries went out of business long before sea turtles were added to the endangered species list in 1978.  This was due to overfishing practices.  Research and conservation efforts have been in full swing almost ever since.  The point is humans should take responsibility and always tackle feeding our race while keeping sustainability in mind.
Ouch! (I just twisted my ankle jumping off the soap box)

If there is some burning question you have about greens or any sea turtle species, feel free to ask! I'll be happy to share what I know as fact, or else I will find the right answer for you!

BONUS ROUND!

I consider myself lucky to have acquired many wonderful friends and colleagues over the years, and Cody Mott is no exception.  I have the honor of bragging that I knew him before completing his Bachelor's and Master's degrees, before his work at Inwater Research, and now even before his marriage to another awesome friend- Rebecca.  Cody's Master's thesis focused on one behavioral aspect of the green sea turtle.  While all sea turtles must orient themselves to reach the ocean as hatchlings, animals with large migration routes must also be capable of finding their way through a multitude of habitats without getting lost.  Cody worked closely with one aspect of green turtles and their ability to find direction using the sun as a compass.  Many of the behavioral studies on sea turtles focuses on the green.  This is because the general consensus among those working with marine turtles on a regular basis is that the green is the most intelligent among the lot.  They are usually the ones trained first in captive settings and personally, I find them the prettiest (sorry, hawksbills).  I am also aware that the last fact is completely unrelated, but thought you should know anyway!
Don't those eyes look intelligent to you?



Sun Compass Orientation in Juvenile Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas)
CODY R. MOTT and MICHAEL SALMON
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 USA
[codyrmott@hotmail.com; salmon@fau.edu]




ABSTRACT. – Juvenile green turtles occupy home ranges on shallow reefs that parallel the
southeastern coast of Florida. When disturbed, the turtles often flee eastward toward deeper water. We captured turtles at night and recorded their orientation during the next 2 days while they swam tethered inside a large circular outdoor pool and were exposed to the sun. The turtles from 2 reef sites were significantly oriented eastward. After 7–10 days of exposure to a laboratory photocycle advanced by 7 hours, turtles tested in the same pool were significantly oriented westward, the predicted direction if they used the sun for orientation. Westward orientation was unaffected by placing either disc magnets or brass discs of identical mass above the turtles’ heads. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that orientation under clear skies is preferentially based upon solar cues. However, control turtles exposed for 7–10 days to a photocycle advanced by 1 hour were also expected to swim generally eastward, but, for unknown reasons, failed to show significant orientation. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that the sun is used as a compass, but additional experiments will be required to provide definitive evidence.


To learn more about Cody's research, or to acquire the complete paper, contact him directly or contact myself through this blog and I will be happy to help.  He now works with a fantastic organization called Inwater Research Group. To learn more about their (and Cody's) current work, check out the website: http://www.inwater.org.

For general facts about sea turtles, to learn more about the conservation and research going on throughout the entire world, I highly recommend the following sites:
http://www.seaturtle.org/ or http://www.conserveturtles.org/ The latter was formerly the Caribbean Conservation Corporation and is most useful when looking into research done in that region of the world.  I hope this post has helped you get to know and love one of my favorite species just a little bit more!

Just keep swimming!
-Callie Sharkey